Frame Relay Notes

Just some Frame Relay notes I’ve made in my studies.

PVC Status Messages-
Active - Working
Inactive - remote problem - problem on the other side 
Deleted - Local problem (problem on the immediate device)

Three types of LMI: 
Cisco -default propreitary 
LMI Autosense used from the DTE side to determine the LMI type coming from the frame-relay provider. It sends out the three LMI messages and the LMI type based on what it recieves back.3 LMIs not recieved is the default for a time out and connection to be considered down.
router#show frame LMI - shows what type of LMI is being used, how many enq. has been sent and recieved.
DLCI - Data Link Connection Identifier. Frame Relay's Layer 2 address. Locally Significant only. Not advertised to other routers.
Assigned by the frame relay provider.
iARP - Inverse ARP - Dynamic Mapping - Router's service to learn the discover the FRcircuit dynamically and create frame-map statements. 
Enabled by default.

Frame map statements: Always map the local DLCI to the remote IP address.
router(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay - to turn frame relay on an interface. (Cisco or ietf are your encapsulation options.
router#show frame map - show frame relay map statements created statically or via iARP
router(config-if)#no frame-relay inverse-arp - turn off iARP (disable dynamic mapping)
router(config-if)#frame map ip x.x.x.x(remote router) xxx(local dlci) broadcast(to send out routing updates for routing protocols since FR is an NBMA network)

Split Horizon - Rule that routes learned on an interface are not to be sent out that same interface. Split Horizon is a routing loop prevention rule. Problem in frame-relay using point to point connections.
router(config-if)#no ip split horizon - turns off the split horizon rule.
Point to Multipoint is a way to prevent this. This is done by creating logical subinterfaces off a physical interface.
router(config)#interface serial 0/0.### specify point to point or multipoint.

Congestion notification values:
FECN - Forward Explicit Congestion Notification
BECN - Backward Explicit Congestion Notification
DE - Discard Eligible
router#show frame pvc - will show you pvc interfaces, will display in/out FECN and BECN values

NAT and ACL Notes

Here are some NAT and ACL notes I’ve been taking from my studies. Want to use them for yours? Go ahead. These are just random notes however, not much context to go off of.


ACLs have an implicit deny at the end of each ACL.
Rules of ACLs: 1 ACL Per Interface Per Direction

Named ACL: router(config)#ip access-list <(extended)(standard)> <(1-99)(100-199)(WORD)>
Modify Numbers (lines) in ACLs:
router(config-ext-nacl)# <1-2147483647> [statement]
At the end for your ACL, to negate the implicit deny:
Standard: access-list (1-99) permit any
Extended: access-list (100-199) permit ip any any
Standard (1-99) - permit or deny based on source. Apply standard ACLs as far from the source/as close to the destination as possible.
access-list (1-00) <(permit)(deny)(remark)> <Source(any)(host)(A.B.C.D)> <(cr)(wildcard)(log)>
Apply IN or OUT at router(config-if)#ip access-group (1-99) <(in)(out)>
Prevent telnet or ssh:
router(config-line)#access-class <(1-99)> <(in)(out[not reccomended btw])>
Extended (100 - 199) - more powerful, based on port, protocol, source to destination. For efficiency, (not required) place as close to the source as possible/as far from the destination as possible. (Place INBOUND on the host's default gateway, this prevents the packet from even being routed in the first place)
access-list (100-199)
Based on protocol:
access-list (100-199)
<eq(port#/name)SOURCE PORT - usually ANY since the host rolls a source itself>
<eq(port#/name)DESTINATION PORT>
access-list 100 deny tcp any eq 23 - deny /24 telnet
access-list 100 deny tcp any eq 80 - deny /24 http
access-list 100 deny udp host any eq 69 - deny host tftp
access-list 100 deny tcp any any eq 3724 - deny any host from World of Warcraft
access-list 100 deny udp any any eq 3724 - deny any host from World of Warcraft

Apply IN or OUT at router(config-if)#ip access-group (100-199) <(in)(out)>
router(config)#ip access-list extended WAN_FILTER
router(config-ext-nacl)# permit tcp any any established
router(config)#int WAN INTERFACE
router(config-if)#ip access-group WAN_FILTER in
(EXAMPLE ISP IP address:
Dynamic NAT - Internal IP to WAN UP - One to One Translation
as well as WAN to Internal
Least common use form of NAT

router(config-if)#ip nat inside - identifies your INTERNAL facing interface (into your network)
router(config-if)#ip nat outside - identifies your EXTERNAL facing interface (outside your network boundary to isp)
router(config)#ip access-list standard (name)
router(config-std-nacl)#deny - this line denies /24 from being translated to the internet. Will stop the host at the exiting infterface and will not reach the internet.
permit - this line is what tells the router to translate /16 out to the internet. This will translate an internal private IP address to an external routeable IP address onto the internet as number)
router(config)#ip nat inside source list NAME int (external interface) overload - adding overload adds the port number to the external IP.
router#show ip nat translations will show your nat translations
NAT Overload - Internal IP to external IP+port (commonly called PAT)
EX:<[random]5634 (d)> goes out WAN interface (ip, and a NAT session is created and entered from t, it is overloaded to <>, packets from come back as <>
example(this is not a real translation table):
Web Browser checks
Inside Source _ _ _ _ _ _ _ | _ _ _ _ Outside Source _ _ _ _ _ | _ _ _ _Destination _ _ _
____________________________|__________________________________|_________________________ - - - - -|- - - - - - - - - | - - -
[HOST] [WAN] []
A reply FROM
Inside Destin _ _ _ _ _ _ _ | _ _ _ _ Outside Source _ _ _ _ _ | _ _ _ _Destination _ _ _
____________________________|__________________________________|_________________________ - - - - | - - - - - - - -| - -
[HOST] [] [WAN]

Static NAT: Create 1 to 1 IP Mappings. 1 internal IP, to 1 external IP.
or, multiple internal IPs to one external IP with unique port numbers.
Used commonly for outside IPs to access your internal ips. 
(like a webserver for example)
router(config)#ip nat inside source static would be seen on the internet as
router(config)#ip nat inside source static tcp 80 WAN INTERFACE 80
any http requests (tcp 80) to would be forwarded to
port static nat mapping is the best way to use an IP address given to you by an ISP.
For large organizations that could use up all their ports:
router(config)#ip nat pool INTERNET_ADDRESS (list your public IP addresses) prefix-length
router(config)#ip nat inside source list WAN_FILTER pool INTERNET_ADDESSES overload
this allows all your hosts in the network to use and for their nat translations.